January 2015

Black Civil War Soldiers: A Data Exploration in History 214

In the Fall 2014 semester, students in History 214: The American Civil War and Reconstruction class got help from DASIL to explore data about black soldiers who enlisted in the U.S. Army during the Civil War.  Where did black soldiers come from?  What kinds of economic and social factors influenced their experiences?  Students read an article by the very creative economic historians Dora L. Costa and Matthew E. Kahn, “Forging A New Identity: The Costs and Benefits of Diversity in Civil War Combat Units for Black Slaves and Freemen” (2004),” which used a variety of census, enlistment, and pension data to examine some of the effects of serving in the military on the almost 200,000 black men who enlisted in the U.S. Army after 1862.  Students had also read several articles that used Geographic Information Systems to do spatial analysis, and I was interested in doing an in-class exercise to help them think critically about military data and to introduce them to using the GIS technology.

DASIL Director Kathy Kamp, Post-Baccalaureate Fellow Sara Sanders, and DASIL student Harry Maher worked with me to design an exercise that could help students to visualize data about black soldiers for themselves and to think about the effects of geography on black enlistment.  We used a dataset on “Union Army Recruits in Black Regiments in the United States Army 1862-1865” compiled by Jacob Metzger and Robert A. Margo available through the ICPSR as a starting point.

The DASIL staff created tables that contained the Metzger and Margo data, along with 1860 census information on population and agricultural production and some tables on black enlistment from Freedom’s Soldiers: The Black Military Experience in the Civil War  (Berlin, Reidy, and Rowland, 1998).  We worked together to create a GIS exercise based on the data that could whet the students’ appetites for working with spatial data in just one class period.

The in-class exercise had two points: to get the students thinking about the nature of the datasets and to have them use ArcGIS software to create maps that showed the relationship between the proportion of black soldiers enlisted in relation to the total population by state and cotton production by county.  The Metzger and Margo dataset is based on a judgment sample, so students were able to examine the dataset alongside census records to appreciate how judgment samples do not include comprehensive data.  Nor do they represent a random, representative sampling of black soldiers.  But used alongside the census data and the tables from Freedom’s Soldiers, the data were still able to help them form some useful conclusions.

Map showing Number of Black Soldiers and Cotton Production in the United States in 1860

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The Unemployment Rate(s)

Every month, the Bureau of Labor Statistics releases information about the US job market in the Current Population Survey (CPS).  Out of the extensive information and data in the report, the media highlights one, and typically only one, piece of information: the ‘average’ unemployment rate for the country.  This single number is then used to draw conclusions about the state and health of the US economy.

This single number, though, masks considerable diversity in the economic condition of individuals and the economic activity in different areas of the country.  These differences can be understood through some simple and straightforward data visualization graphs that DASIL has put together.  In my Introduction to Economics class, I ask students to spend some time familiarizing themselves with the CPS and the associated graphics produced by DASIL to consider the employment outcomes of different groups of individuals.

The interactive graphic created by DASIL displays the unemployment rate over time of individuals with different demographic characteristics.  The graphic focuses on unemployment rates conditioned on race (all race, white, black, Hispanic or other), gender (male or female), age (all age, 15-24, 25-44, 45 and over), and education (all education, no high school, high school, college).  Using the interactive buttons on the website, students can explore how the unemployment rate varies across these different groups. Students will learn, for example, that:

  • Relative to whites, the unemployment rate for blacks is typically twice as high.

Comparison of Black and White Unemployment Rates, August 2005-November 2014

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What is the State of the Union Address Really About?

The State of the Union Address has been an American tradition since 1790.  The President of the United States addresses Congress, reports the current condition of the country, and also presents legislative plans.  But, does the content of speeches change over time?  To examine this question, DASIL staff downloaded the full text of every State of the Union Address, and I used NVivo to analyze them.

Some topics have been more pressing in recent times—like terrorism.

Graph of Mentions of Terrorism in State of the Union Addresses

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